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Addendum (on biological relationships)

Africoid
    Egyptians

An Haratin family from the Draa Valley in Morocco. The Haratin were found to have the closest blood typology to the Dynastic Egyptians (see below)
(http://geogweb.berkeley.edu/GeoImages/Miller/maroc/family2.jpg)
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    From:	SMTP%"SVBLL@jazz.ucc.uno.edu" 27-MAY-1996 20:24:42.84
    To:	EMEAGWALI
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    Subj:	evading evidence
    
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    Date: Mon, 27 May 1996 12:56:50 -0600 (CST)
    From: "Staffas V. Broussard" 
    Subject: evading evidence
    To: athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
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    concerning thin lips and noses and originates from comments of S. O. Y. 
    Keita in a letter to Eric Martel.   Given the conversational aspects of this 
    medium,  sometimes I find it difficult to discern a poster's position within the
    overall discusssion.  Katherine Griffis, I was wondering what is the 
    position that you're taking and how would you respond to the questions below?
    (If Bernard Ortiz is listening, I would also be interested in your response.)
    
    	Do narrow faces and narrow noses equal Mediterranean types or
    mixing?
    	Does all intermediateness imply admixture?
    	Are there groups whose genetic origins are West African, but 
    are light to dark brown in complexion and possess narrow noses and faces?
    What about East African?  Are there groups of Black Africans with narrow
    noses and faces? (e.g. see Hiernaux, 1975)
    	Are there late dynastic groups in the delta that cluster with tropical
    Africans (Howells, 1973)?
    	Are there groups that cluster with Africans in one method of analysis
    and with Europeans in another?  Are these intermediates?  How should they
    be classified?  As Mediterraneans?
    
    	Do very large samples of Egyptian remains exhibit tropical
    microadaptation?  In general, the issue is do the early southern Egyptian
    exhibit tropical microadaptation or do they exhibit cold climate 
    adaptations. (Kieta, 1990)
    	Isn't it true that Dynastic Egyptian mummies show ABO
    frequencies similar to the Haratin, a negroid Berber people? (Paoli, 1972,
    Journal of Human Evolution)
    	What does a comparison of early Nile Valley remains and eastern 
    Mediterranean imply about their biological relationship? (Angel, 1972, Journal
    of Human Evolution)
     
    	Do you agree that the ancient Saharans were Negroid in the neolithic, 
    where Negroid here means from the extreme Negroid to Elongated phenotypes?
    	Do you agree that the Mediterranean type becomes prominent in the
    Sahara in the 2000-1500 B.C. period? (Chamla, 1966)
    	Do you agree that there is a significant overlap of southern Egyptians
    with Black Africans?
    	Do you agree that in the mesolithic in Upper Egypt the characteristics
    of remains are more like West Africans, than later predynastic
    Egyptians? (Strouhal, 1984, Journal of Human Evolution)
    
    	Ask yourself would ancient Egyptians have to be identical to Kenyans 
    in order to be characterized as Negroid?.
    	Consider that while the variations reflected in the Alpine, Dinaric, 
    Nordic and Mediterranean have been characterized as _Caucasian_, only extreme 
    physiogamies are called _Negro_.
    	Isn't the Elongated typed physiogamy truly tropical African?
    
    	Also, truth is in the eye of the beholder, isn't it?  Consider 
    Petrie.  Petrie percieved the Galla in the Egyptian portraits.  He did not see 
    Mediterraneans.  I believe he claimed that the Galla had invaded Egypt in 
    the first intermediate period.  Didn't Volney bemoan the fact that the race
    he saw enslaved in his time were the very people who built the pyramids.
    And Budge characterized Egyptains and their culture as African.
    
    	Has there been a racial study of Egyptian portraits and statues?  
    	
    	The Sphinx does have a Negroid look, doesn't he?  His broad Negroid 
    face. His profile exhibiting subnasal prognathism.  As a personal aside, 
    I believe that I can safely say that there isn't a person of African descent in 
    the New World who would not identify Akhenaten as a person of African descent.  
    
    Thanks, 
    staffas
    
    
    -----------------
    
    G. Paoli, in "ABO Typing of Ancient Egyptians" IN _Population biology
    of ancient Egyptians_, edited by D.R. Brothwell and  B.A. Chiarelli, London,
    New York, 1973, showed that the Dynastic Egyptians were most closely matched
    with the Haratin of the northern Sahara.  Paoli mentions the theory of 
    Cabot-Briggs (Cabot-Briggs, L. (1958), _The Living Races of the Sahara Desert,
    Massachussets) that this resemblance might indicate the origin of the Haratin.
    Here are the figures given for the two groups from Paoli (p. 464):
    
    
    Modern Northern Haratin and Dynastic Egyptian
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    		No.	O    A    B    AB    p     q      r
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Egyptians	160 	34   64   34   28   34.35  21.45  44.20  (Paoli)
    Haratin		202	40   80   57   25   30.99  23.14  48.87  (Mourant)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    The Haratin are considered a mixture of the "aboriginal black population" 
    of North Africa and freed slaves mostly from the South.    Of particular
    interest in the chart above is the very high frequency of the q gene.
    In most European population, the gene frequency is below 10% (See
    Montagu, A. _Introduction to Physical Anthropology_ 1960, p. 334).
    
    ---------------
    
    Date: Sun, 2 Jun 1996 0:59:16 -0400 (EDT)
    From: GLORIA EMEAGWALI 
    To: athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
    CC: EMEAGWALI@CCSUA.CTSTATEU.EDU
    Message-Id: <960602005916.20249567@CCSUA.CTSTATEU.EDU>
    Subject: Saharan Africans
    Sender: owner-athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
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            Paul Manansala, I take this opportunity to acknowledge your
        comments on Saharan WestAfricans.I have come to similar conclusions,
        from different routes perhaps. The Northern regions of Cote d"Ivoire,
        Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon as well as Senegal, Guinea,
        Mali, Burkina Faso  and so on fall within the Saharan/Sahelian zone,
        which is the same latitude with the Nile civilizations of Antiquity.
        No impassable barrier stood  or stands between East and West.Eurocentric
        Africanists generally claim that Ezana"s defeat of Meroe (Nubia) led to
        massive migration from that region into West Africa. The same folks, from
        the other side of their mouth declare how impossible it was for a similar
        population movement, a few kilometers north of this region.When British
        imperialists invaded the region("pacified" to eurocentrists) entire
        communities of Northern Nigeria migrated East to the region partly
        coextensive with Nubia of antiquity, Sudan. This they did by feet and 
        on camels.They didn"t have to board American Airlines to do that.
        Similarly , from time to time we come across documents and general
        information related to pilgrims from Senegal, Nigeria and so on who
        successfully did the Hajj following well trodden routes. Mansa Musa
        of Mali and his huge entourage did not travel by American Airlines
        either.Eurovcentrists create obstacles where they do not exist and
        conversely look around for the most improbable solution to a simple
        problem. Was it Thomas who eloquently alluded to this a few weeks
        ago?
           Ortiz, what else can we do for you besides bringing a live Egyptian
        from the Pharaonic era? How else can we communicate to you our
        findings with respect to Egyptian cultural links and in what other
        language. I have indicated the similarities and continuities with
        respect to braided wigs, Africoid combs, headrests, diet and ok
        large penises! I identified some of the observations of Herodotus
        and noted similar tendencies. Paul cited the observations of Shinnie,
        who had a pretty long list which was characteristically trivialised.
            So what relevance could this be for the present? San was asked.
        What does this have to do with our materialistic present, blurted the 
        same guy. "But each African is unique!" shouted the obstinate linguist!
        Five minutes later the guy who asked the first question moved towards
        his computer, not knowing of course that the binary mathematics of the
        computer and boolean logic did indeed have ancient roots and that the
        very calendar he used was a modification of the ancient Egyptian
        calendar.
    
    
        (To be continued some day)
    
    
    
    
        Gloria Emeagwali
    
    [continued]
    
    Date: Sun, 2 Jun 1996 7:19:36 -0400 (EDT)
    From: GLORIA EMEAGWALI 
    To: athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
    CC: EMEAGWALI@CCSUA.CTSTATEU.EDU
    Message-Id: <960602071936.20249967@CCSUA.CTSTATEU.EDU>
    Subject: Saharan/Sahelian West Africans
    Sender: owner-athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
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            I forgot to mention that most of the Saharan/Sahelian West Africans
          with the exception of some Tuareg are jet black.The tuareg themselves
          have a jet black component. I also want to make a modification to
          my previous post with respect to the ancient roots of the computer.
          I believe that it is not so much Boolean logic and binary mathematics
          that have ancient roots but rather the principle of progressive
          doubling.Please note the correction.
    
          Gloria Emeagwali
    
    
    -----------------
    
    
    From: blackman@earthlink.net (Charles Curtis)
    Subject: Race
    Sender: owner-athena-discuss@info.harpercollins.com
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    >
    >Maybe because it assaulted us dozens of times, no one has responded to my query
    >of a few days ago. Why should we accept that there are three races (Negroid,
    >Caucasoid, Mongoloid), as suggested by the Egyptian gentleman to S F Thomas?
    >
    >I ask again because 
    >staffas Broussard seems to accept this classification (due to Blumenbach in the
    >18th century) in his string of questions concerting more detailed physical
    >resemblances among peoples.
    >
    
    The issue of race and its very existence appears very problematic for this
    discussion, as I am sure most have already ascertained.  Topical observation
    shows that most of the definitive markers that have been assigned to
    determination of race are artificial at least and ambiguous at most.
    Although it is difficult to obtain concensus from even anthropologists, if I
    may, I would like to humbly submit my thoughts concerning this matter.
    
    In attempting to classify individuals according to race it appears futile to
    search for quintessential specimens.  Any given trait can be shown to exist
    to a lesser or greater degree in all of the so-called racial groups.  I
    think it would be more appropriate to treat what we refer to as races as
    groups or populations of individuals that exhibit with greater incidence
    certain traits of heredity, moreso than other groups.  Some individuals will
    exhibit all the traits, while others only some, with varying degrees, since
    each trait is transmitted independent of others.  There is no Negro,
    Caucasian, or Mongoloid gene that I know of.  If there is, I would greatly
    appreciate any information pertaining to such.  The presence or absence of a
    particular trait does not particularly include or exclude an individual.
    The trait frequency in which it occurs within a given population would
    determine if it is characteristic of a group.                          
    
    Populations that procreate chiefly among themselves due to culture and
    geographic boundaries tend to exhibit over time distinctive characteristics
    which compromise a common genetic heritage.  This is what I consider a race
    to be.  A relatively isolated and definitive breeding population.  There are
    surely factors of genetic drift, changing environmental stresses, and of
    course migration that weigh in over time.  It appears that the concept of
    race has been bastardized, primarily for political expediency in many
    instances, over the years.  It is a concept that most people have an
    intuitive notion but find difficult to articulate. Language is so
    inadequate.  I'm not so sure anthropologists are in complete agreement.  To
    espouse the "three race position" leaves one rear quite exposed.
    
    The somewhat ancilliary issue of skin color is a trait that is most commonly
    used in attempting to place individuals into racial categories.  However,
    this adaptable trait is somewhat unreliable since most groups from
    equatorial regions have increased levels of melanin in response to increased
    levels of UV radiation.  Likewise, lighter skinned individuals tend to be
    from dreary climes further away from the equator who evolved lighter skin to
    most likely facilitate production of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (a form
    of vitamin D) necessary for the proper metabolism of calcium.  So you don't
    necessarily have to be a Negro because you have dark skin nor a Caucasian,
    as these terms have been applied, simply due to a lighter complection.  I
    simply attempt to apply Darwinian principles that basically state that
    individuals better suited to their environment have a reproductive
    advantage.  Conservative traits that are not greatly impacted by
    environmental stresses such as hair type, tooth architecture, RBC antigens,
    etc. are probably better race markers.  But who am I to say.  I'll leave
    that to the experts.
    
    Anthropology is not my area of expertise.  However, I do believe this is a
    reasonable approach to the issue of race.
    
    A dimension of this so-called debate that distrurbs me are the implicit and
    sometimes explicit assertions by some that race is a non-issue, that it
    doesn't matter.  I have to wonder if these individuals practice what they
    preach.  Sure race matters.  It matters for all of us.
    
    On the related topic of racism I believe is not monolithic but multi-faceted
    and very natural if viewed within the context of obtaining some real or
    perceived benefit that allows a particular group or individual to thrive or
    have advantage over others.  A one Mr. Howard Schwartz articulated well the
    phenomena of racism as it pertains to the individual and I quote:
    
       "From a psychoanalytic point of view, racism is a form of projective
    identification. Roughly that means that certain ways of seeing ourselves
    that are unacceptable to us are projected outward onto others where we can
    try to control them. It is a way of preserving our fantasy of our own
    perfection. In the case of racism, unacceptable ideas about the self are
    projected onto members of another race, which is then hated and attacked, as
    if we could destroy those hated parts of ourselves by destroying the members
    of the other race.  An individual who structures his or her life on the
    basis of this projective identification is a racist.
    
       It's important to note, though, that the basic psychological process has
    nothing to do with race. Anything outside the self will do: people who
    believe differently than we do, another nation, indeed, even our own nation,
    seen as a malevolent force outside ourselves. Our parents can suffice, or
    our students, or our spouses. For that matter, racists themselves can serve
    as a focus for our projective identification, which may magnify their power
    and their malevolence and cause us to see them where they are not.
    
       The point here is that projective identification is basically an
    intra-psychic process which comes to look like a relationship to others
    because we cannot accept it as an intra-psychic process. It is, moreover,
    something which, if we are honest with ourselves about ourselves, we can all
    find ourselves engaging in. Fact is, the capacity to be honest with oneself
    about oneself is the best and maybe the only means of relinquishing
    projective identification. It can also help us greatly in appreciating the
    substratum of our common, flawed humanity."
    
    Racism appears to be a collection of behaviors and not a single entity.
    
    Now back to Bernal's charge that racism was a contributing factor in the
    Ancient Model of Greek history being discarded for the Aryan Model.  Has the
    jury reached a verdict?
    
    Charles Curtis
    
    
    
    

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