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Austric relationship of Sumerian Language

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The Sumerian language has thus far not been linked with any other large family of languages. This web page is dedicated to showing a relationship between Sumerian and the Austric languages.

Sumerian is an agglutinative language like those in the Austric family. Like those languages it uses liberally both suffixes and prefixes in its morphology. In this sense, it differs from other Asiatic agglutinative languages like Ural-Altaic (Uralic and Altaic), Dravidian, Japanese and Korean, which use almost exclusively suffixes in the conjugation of the verb and declension of nouns and pronouns.

"Racial" Types in Sumer

According to many experts, the Al-Ubaid people were ancestral to the Sumerians, or at least, to their culture. The Al-Ubaid skulls show a chaemaerrhine index with a mean value of 49.2. In other words, they had very broad noses. The skulls had both subnasal and alveolar prognathism, or fullness of the lower and upper lips. The average linear projection was 8 mm. for the skulls. Their heads were long and narrow.

Buxton and Rice found that of 26 Sumerian crania 17 were Australoid, five Austrics and four Armenoid. According to Penniman who studied skulls from Kish and other Sumerian sites, these three: the Australoid (Eurafrican), Austric and Armenoid were the "racial" types associated with the Sumerians. Here is Penniman's description of the Austric type found at Sumer:

	"These people are of medium stature, with complexion and
	hair like those of the Eurafrican, to which race they are 
	allied, dark eyes, and oval faces.  They have small ill-filled
	dolichocephalic skulls, with browridges poorly developed or
	absent, bulging occiputs, orbits usually horizontal ellipses,
	broad noses, rather feeble jaws, and slight sinewy bodies."

Both the Australoid and Austric type are found in India, where the former is known as Dravidian in its less extreme variety. Like all the different populations of India, both Dravidian and Austric are long-headed like most of the skulls at Sumer. As one goes further East, Austrics become mostly round-headed due possibly to the greater proportion of Mongoloid blood, and the Austronesians of the South Seas are primarily round-headed. Formerly, it was popular to ascribe the Australoid and Austric types to "dark Caucasoid" origin in the Mediterranean area. Indeed, some archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists, linguists etc., still subscribe to this theory. However, skeletons of both types have now been found in Sri Lanka, Australia and parts of Southeast Asia that are significantly older than those of the Mediterranean. Also, the recent finds of very early hominids in Java and China, predating those to the west, and the obvious tropical nature of the two types themselves, make such theories unnecessary and forced.

Przyluski and Autran carried out a very preliminary comparison of Sumerian and Austric earlier this century in which they showed some sound correspondences between the two.

While Sumerian is primarily SOV, it also has instances of SVO, VO and VS. Other Austric languages are also mostly SVO, for example, the Munda languages in Austro-Asiatic/Miao, many of the Austronesian languages of Papua, and Japanese according to Benedict's Japanese/Austro-Tai theory. So, lets start with our comparison of the languages.


Pronouns

	Sumerian                Austric

I       ga                      ga  (Taulil),  go (Solor),  gau (Gao),  gni (Savo)
                                ga (Dialect Japanese?) kaw (Khamti, Ahom, Sham,
                                Tho-nung), ku (Siam, Lao, Black Tai),  ke 
				(Santa Cruz), -gu (Dawawa, Kakabai,
                                Sinaki, Suau, Bohutu, object suffix)
				ga- (Bwaidoka, subject prefix)


You     za.e, ze                sau, si, su (Austro-Tai), hau (Manggarai)
                                su (Atayal), su-, -sun (Paiwan),  za (variant of sama),
                                oze, ozo (Japanese)

He/She  ene                     eni (Vanua Lava, Mantion),  ini (Bank's Is.),
				ine (New Hebrides),  ina (Santa Cruz),
				ena- (Suau, Molima), ena (Manikion)

They    e.ne.ne-ra (dative)     inira  (Vunapu, Penantsiro, Akei, Wailapa, 
				Tutuba, Vao),  enira (Tangoa),  enir (Vanua
				Lava,  inir (Gaua),  ineira (Mota)


Pronominal Suffixes

I       -en                     in (Santali free pronoun);
				en (Sakai free pronoun),     
				-ano, -eno,-ino (Baruya, subject
				person suffixes) -ana (Ampale,
				subject person suffix), -in (Sora)
			   
you     -en                     -an (Menya, subject person suffix),
				-aano, -ino, ano (Baruya, subject person
				suffix), ina (Ampale, subject person
				suffix), -em (Sora)

he/she  -e                      e (Santali free pronoun),
				-ei (Are, object suffix), -i
				(Kukuya, Wedau, Taupota, Garuwahi,
				object suffix), e- (Dawawa, Kakabai,
				Sinaki, subject prefix),  e- (Ouma,
				Bina, Gadaisu, pronominal prefix),
				e (Areas, short free pronoun), -i
				Kapau, Menya, subject person suffix),
				-e (Sora)

we      -enden                  -antane, -entana-zi (Ampale, subject person 
                                suffix), anate (Lifu, free pronoun)

they    -es                     -usi, -avi (Ampale, subject person suffix),
				-si (object suffix, Are), -hi (Tawala),
				-s (Muyuw, object suffix),  -eji (Sora)
				

Possessive Suffix

mine    -gu                     -gu (Ouma, Magori, Yoba, Bina)
                                gu (Japanese, humble), -ku (Kapampangan,
                                Malay),  -ko (Tagalog), -kdu (Cham)
				(also the pronoun suffixes:
				-go (Loyalty Is.),  gu-, ku-
				(New Hebrides), -k (Banks Is.),
				-qu (Fiji), -gu, -ku, (Solomon Is.,
				Maori)

your    -zu                     -sun (Paiwan, pronominal suffix),
                                su (Ahom, Khamti) ha (Sakai),zune
                                (Japanese, plural),  unzu (Japanese)


our     -me                     amin (Philippines), -ma (Dobu, excl.), 
				-m (Muyuw, excl.), -mai ((Magori, Yoba,
				Bina, excl.),  -mami, -melu (Saa, Ulawa,
                                Wolio, Proto-East Oceanic, excl.),
                                -mey (Muyuw, excl. accompaniment)

his     -a.ni                   anin-a (Savara), ini-ren (Mundari),
				uni-ren (Santali), -na (Malay, Kalokalo,
				Kukuya, Tawala, Suau), -ne (Ninowa),
				-nu (Cham),  niya (Kapampangan),
				nah (Talaing),  ana- (Misima, Muyuw,
                                Kukuya, Mwatebu), -n (Kilivila, intermediate)

their   -a.ne.ne                aninji-na (Savara), nah (Talaing),
				-na (Malay), -nu (Cham), aninji (Sora)

	

Interrogatives

What?    A.na?                  Ano? (Philippines, Indonesia), Uani?
				(Letemboi), Nani? (Japan), Nanu?
				(Kapampangan)

Who?     A.ba?                  Si-apa (Malay/Indonesia from apa? "What?"),
				Pa? (Infit., Ikiti), Pae? (Imreang, Ikiyau),
				Pah? (Loniel), Pai? (Weda, Sawai), Abhay?,
				Abe? (Nissaya Burmese, classified as 
				Sino-Tibetan or Tibeto-Burmese, but of
				highly mixed characteristics including
				agglutinative morphology.)  Epa? (Fasu)
				Aapi? (Kewa), Ibuge? (Foe), Bo? (Sakai)


When?    Me-na-am?              Mana nui? (Chamorro), Mangge? (Chamorro), mingyaal
				(Yap), mo (Bontok)
									   
Where?   Me-a?                  Mana? (Malay, Indonesia)




Conjugation Prefixes

Sumerian                Austric

i-                      i- (Philippines, definite or passive)

im-, am-                um- (Tagalog, active)

ma-, mu-,               ma- (Philippines, Malay, Indonesia, active, passive)

na-i-ga, nam-ga,        nag- (possibly as bounded form, Phil., Indonesia, active)
na-an-ga-, 
(affirmative)

ba-, pa-                pa- (Kapampangan, non-agentive, causative, etc.)
(non-agentive)          ba- (Ouma, Magori, Yoba, Bina, 1sg. past)

bi-                     pi- (Tagalog)




Verbal Prefixes

na-                    na- (Muyuw, negative)
(negative)

-nga-                  nga (Philippines, adverb "really, 
("also")                   truly.")

-mga-                  ngke (Indonesia, "here, now),  ngayon
("at this time")       (Philippines, adverb, "now, at this time.")



Pronominal Prefixes

e/a-                    a- (Muyuw, Gumasi, Are, Tawala, Kukuya, Wedau, Taupota)
			e- (Magori, Yoba), e/a (Loyalty Is., New Hebrides, 
			Banks Is., Solomon Is., verbal particles that can act 
			as pronouns)

n-                      n- (Motlav, Volow, verbal particle),  na (Torres Is., Savo),
			nu (Merlav), n- (Asmat-Kamoro family, South VK stock).



Prepositions, Particles and Conjuctions

			Sumerian                Austric

in, among, from         sa                      sa (Philippines, Malay
						   "in, from, on, etc.")
	
on, by, for             ki                      kin (Kapampangan "on, to
                                                    by"), ka (Danaw, "for")
						    
if, when                ud-da                   ata, aka (Polynesian "if, as, 
							 but"), ato (Peterara),
							 outn (Dixon Reef)

this                    ne, ne.en               ne (New Hebrides, Solomon Is.),
						nene (Solomon Is.), nei (Maori),
						ini (Malay), nae (Burumba), 
						nana (Lamenu), nini (Sowa)

that/this               -bi                     bi- (Tairora, Gadsup, Awa,
						    Auyana, "that")
		

Case Markers

			Sumerian                Austric

Dative                  -na-                    na (Nifilole), ne (Espirito
						Santo),  ma (Santa Cruz),

Locative                -ri- (variant of        ray (Saisiyat), leng (Sora),
			      -ni-)             ri (Nengone),  ra, lo (Ambrym),
                                                lo (Ureparapara), -re (Kherwari,
                                                Santali, Mundari)   

Locative                -ni-                    -ni, nen (Inibaloi)
						meng (Sora)

Locative (inanimate)    -a                      ah (Balangaw), -a (Juang)

Comitative              -da                     ta (Kavalan), ki (Saisiyat)

Locative-terminative    -e (inanimate)          i (Thao, locative)

Ergative                -e                      e (common Polynesian)

Equative                -gin                    gana ("likeness, like" Proto-Austronesian,
                                                   adjective),  gina, gen, -gena,
                                                   -gen, etc. ("like" Japanese
                                                   adjective or equative suffix)

Genitive                -ak                     -ak (Santali, Mundari, mostly inanimate
                                                     but also with pronouns and familiar
                                                     animate nouns)


Verbal Postpositions

"when"                  na                      na, ina (Proto-Austronesian, "when," "now")            

"if"                    ba                      ba, be, (Proto-Austronesian, "if"),
                                                pe (Proto-Central-Eastern-Austronesian, "if"),
                                                -ba (Japanese, hypothetical suffix)


Adjectival Termination

Sumerian                                Austric

-a (forms adjective)                    -a (Sesake, Ureparapara,
					    Fiji, Ulawa, Saa, Tonga,
					    Samoa)


Noun Construction

Sumerian                                Austric

nig- + noun/verb = noun                 nag- + noun/verb = noun (Philippines)

nam- + noun/verb/adjective = noun       na + noun = noun (Hawai`i, plural),
(plural or expressing whole)            na- + noun = noun (New Hebrides, 
					usually expresses whole)
                                        nga + noun = noun (Maori, plural)
					mga + noun = noun (Philippines, plural)  
noun + -ene = plural noun               noun + -an = group of objects (Tagalog)
					noun + -an = expression of whole (Sundanese)

noun + -e = ergative                    "e" before or after noun = ergative
					(Polynesia)

Reduplicated noun = totality            Reduplicated noun = totality (Austric)



Reduplication

Sumerian                                Austric

Triple Duplication                      Triple Duplication                      
ga-ga-ga                                napaka-ganda-ganda-ganda-han
					(Philippines)

Quadruple Duplication                   Quadruple Duplication
ga-ga-ga-ga                             pi-pi-pi-pi-va (Melanesia)



Verbal Suffixes

Sumerian                                        Austric

-ak (genitive),  -a-ka (genitive-locative)      -ake, -aka
						(Java, Fiji, verbal suffixes)

-ta (ablative-instrumental),  -da               -ta'i (Samoa, verbal case suffix)
(comitative)

-se (terminative)                               -sa'i (Samoa, verbal case suffix)




Verb Morphology

Sumerian

modal prefix + conjugation prefix + case suffix + pronominal suffix +
verb root + pronominal suffix + syntactic suffix + postposition


Austric 

Ponapean

casuative prefix + (negative, demonstrative, adjectival) prefix + 
verb root +instrumental suffix + object pronoun suffix + 3rd position
suffix + 4th position suffix + 5th position suffix + object pronoun suffix +
completive suffix

Melanesian

verbal particle + reciprocal prefix + causative prefix + verb root +
verbal suffix + adjectival termination + personal pronoun suffix

Kapampangan

new + activativiser + processiviser + causativiser + exertiviser + 
participativiser +abilitaviser + verb root + paired suffix



Animate and Inanimate Categories

Both Sumerian and Austric also share the division of animate
and inanimate categories.  This is generally carried out through
the pronouns and pronominal elements in both Sumerian and Austric.
   

Special Speech

Sumerian possesses a woman's and liturgical language known as Emesal. Such special languages occur commonly in the Austric family. Truk, Simalurese and Japanese have traces of woman's languages. New Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, Samoa, Tonga, Ponape, Turk, Kusae and Japanese are among the languages that have special word classes according to various forms of social stratification.

Consonant sounds in Sumerian/Austric All of the consonants in Sumerian are found in the Austric languages with the possible exception of a second h sound suggested by I.M. Diakonoff. Naturally, many sounds found in modern Austric are not found in Sumerian. Some of the more interesting correspondences are: g~ Another "phonetic solution" to this phoneme is |ng| as suggested by Miguel Civil. dr This phoneme is suggested for reconstructed Proto-Oceanic and as a cluster in Austro-Tai. |D| and |r| are alternating consonants within many Austric languages. However, in Sumerian |dr| is found as a final sound. l Two |l| sounds are suggested for Sumerian as one appears to be dropped as a final consonant in Auslaut. Two |l| sounds are suggested for both Proto-Austronesian and Austro-Thai. r Two |r| sounds are also suggested for Sumerian based on the same argument for the sound |l|. Austro-Thai has two |r| sounds, and Austronesian has |r| and retroflex |r|. Vowel sounds in Sumerian/Austric Interestingly, while the |o| sound is found in Austro-Tai and Austric, it is suggested that it was not found in Proto-Austronesian. The current |o| sound in Austronesian is said to be a reflex of the Proto-Austronesian u sound. Sumerian also lacks the |o| sound. Austric does not have correspondence to the possible nasalized vowels suggeted by A. Falkenstein. It has been suggested that Sumerian possessed both long and short vowels. This would help cut down on the large number of apparent homonyms in the language. Austro- Thai has both long and short vowels as do the modern Kadai languages. ng in Sumerian

For the presence of labialized velar and nasalized labio-velars, ng, ngm and ngw see Civil, Miguel, "The Sumerian writing system: some problems," Orientalia Nova Series, 1973, Rome, pg. 31, 61. The ng cluster is one of the most common phonological traits found throughout the Austric family.

g~ in initial position

The use of g~ in the initial position such as in words like g~iri and g~al is a very rare trait in the world's languages, but very common in Austric languages. Generally, words with initial g~ belong to groups of words with special meanings. The Sumerian g~a.e "I," might find a parallel in words like Kasi, nga "I," War, nge "I," and the common ing "I," in the Munda languages. (Also, nga "I," Manam, Marshallese; ngoah, Mokilese; ngehi, Ponapean, ngai "I," Lavukaleve, Takia, Megiar, nga "I," Mindiri, Sepa, Bilbil, Gedaged)

Consonant alternation in Sumerian

This alternation is evidenced by the prefixes ha- and ga- and also by the use of the sign HA for ku "fish," in Sumerian. In Austric, this is a common alteration between different languages like hami "we," and kami "we;" and hamu "you," and gamu "you." M. Yoshiwara compares consonant variation in Japanese with that in Sumerian. Using his research, we will add some very preliminary findings using other Austric languages. Many of the consonant variations found in Sumerian are related to phonetic changes between standard Sumerian and Emesal, while changes in Austric are often morphological in nature. Sumerian Austric b:g ibi:igi "eye" tabane:tagane "bundle" (Japanese) belimbing/galiming "a fruit" (Malay/Orang Laut) b:m bur:mur "to dress" buchi:muchi "whip" (Japanese) bayani:magani "hero" (Philippines, dialect variation) mabawa:mamawa ""bring" (Sundanese) bu?:mu? "shoot" (Atayal) d:g adar:agar "district" kudi:kugi "nail" (Japanese) d:h de:he "let" domeku:homeku "hot" (Japanese) d.undheu:hundheu "to search" (Munda, morphological) dito:heto "here" Tagalog d:z udu:eze "sheep" ada:aza "birthmark" (Japanese) g:h geleg:halam "destroy" magaru:maharu "to turn around" (Japanese) gul mal:hul mal "noise, disturbance" (Munda) g:n sag:shen "head" kugi:kuni "nail" (Japanese) h:r hush:rush "red,angry" hashikoi:kashikoi "wise" (Japanese) heto:rito "here" (Tagalog) maori:maohi "Polynesian" (Polynesia, language variation) m:n munus:nunus "woman" mada:nada "not yet" (Japanese) mag-:nag-, conjugation prefix (Philippines, morphological) n:r na:ra "when" namu:ramu, auxillary verb (Japanese) rava`i:nava`i "to be adequate" (Tahitian) n:sh nin:shen "lady" beni:beshi "because" (Japanese) nila:sila, 3rd person pl. pronoun (Philippines, morphological) s:z sum:zeg "to give" someku:zomeku "to be noisy" (Japanese) sh:z shi:zi "breath" shena:nakaze "brother" (Japanese) r:l gibir:gibil common r:l in Melanesian languages

Is Sumerian a focus language? In her article, "Toward Focus in Austronesian," (IN S.A. Wurm, Lois Carrington (eds), Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Proceedings, Canberra, 1978) Paz Buenaventura Naylor states that focus "underlies verbal predication" in Austronesian languages. She calls focus the "family trait" of Austronesian that covers the qualities known as voice, transitivity and aspect. Sumerian conjugation affixes appear to distinguish between agentive and non-agentive and this may suggest that it was a focus language. Here is a comparison of affixes in Sumerian with some Austronesian affixes: Sumerian Austronesian mu- (agentive) mag- (agentive, Philippines) ma- (agentive, Philippines) -m- (agentive?) -m- (agentive, Paiwan) men- (agentive, Indonesia) m- (agentive-statement, Proto-Austronesian, Zorc) ba- (non-agentive) pa- (non-agentive, Kapampangan) pa- (non-agentive) pa-in (definite passive, Philippines) pag- (verbal noun prefix, Philippines) paki- (passive request, Tagalog) i-* (instrumental?) i-* (instrumental, Philippines) In Philippine languages, the prefix i- usually denotes: doing something for another. It can also express the means or instrument of action, and the cause, time or place of action. From some of the examples given by Thomsen, we find such usage seems common with the Sumerian prefix i- (Thomsen, The Sumerian language, 56-57). The verb "to be" and "to become" In Sumerian, the verb "to be" is me, and it is sometimes used interchangeably with the word "like" = "ge". In Japanese, "ge" also means "like," and -meku is a suffix meaning "being" or "becoming like." In other Austronesian languages, we have -men as a suffix meaning "to be," and maging means "to be" or "to become" in the Philippines. Similar particles like mag-, ma-, men-, maka-, etc., are used in various Austronesian languages with action words to emphasize the agent. Gana is Proto-Austronesian for "likeness," and there are related words like gaya in the Philippines which means "like."

Consonant alternation of morphs/morphemes

In Austronesian we see a common alternation of verbal affixes that involves active/agentive type verbs in |m|, passive/non-agentive type verbs in |p| and verbal nouns, especially in expression of whole, in |n|.

In many cases, these affixes involve a second consonant in either n/m or g/k. If we take the interchange of words or affixes meaning "like" such as Proto-Austronesian "gana" and "to be, become" such as "maging," "-men," or "-meku," we can postulate that the second consonant in the prototype might have been "ng" from which we could easily get n, k, g, y and so on. There would be correspondence in Sumerian in the suffix -men "to become," and the prefix "nig-" which transforms a verb/noun/adjective into a noun.

Correspondence in word/morph classes

There exists a similarity in Sumerian third person pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, interrogative pronouns and pronominal affixes in en, an, n, etc. Such similarity can also be found across languages in Austric. In Melanesian languages we find it in third person pronouns, third person possessive suffixes, demonstratives and in a few cases of pronominal affixes. Munda languages share the similarity in pronominal suffixes and third person possessive suffixes, while in Malay languages it is found in third person possessive suffixes, demostratives and interrogatives.


Lexical Comparisons
This list of possible correspondences between Sumerian and Austric will be augmented periodically with new entries in bold text.

uto "Sun"  Sumerian

ad-             Gedaged, Bilbil, Takia
aad-            Biliau,
ake-ake-        Kuanua,
adaw-           Kadai,
adraw-          Indonesia,
aldo-           Kapampangan, Ifugao
adlaw-          Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Illonggo,
udtroadlaw-     "noon," Aklanon,
udto-           "noon," Bikol, Cebuano,
ugto-           "noon," Illongo.
aga-            "morning," Illonggo, Bikol,
agahon-         "morning," Aklanon.

ud "day"  Sumerian

ange-           Loda,
ari-            Bacan,
adaw-           Kadai,
andaw-          Manobo,
adraw-          Indonesia,
adlaw-          Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Illongo,
aldo-           Kapampangan
andro-          Malagasy,
ad-             Papuan (Austronesian)
udtroadlaw-     "noon," Aklanon,
udto-           "noon," Bikol, Cebuano,
ugto-           "noon," Illonggo.
aga-            "morning," Illonggo, Bikol,
agahon-         "morning," Aklanon.


ur "man, humans"  Sumerian

uran-           Cham
uru-            Osum,
oran-           Malay,
orot-           Ubir,
oerang-         Bacan,
oloto-          Taupota, Kakabai,
ari-            Sakao,
aris-           Unua,
arar-           Port Sandwich, Mae-Morae,
aru-            Tate, Api,
olona-          Malagasy, 
orotona-        "male," Wedau,
uri-            "race, species," Philippines.


ur "dog" Sumerian

uri-            Tahiti
uli-            Samoa,
k-uri-          Indonesia, Yatuk, Iarkei, Lenakel, Ikiti,
kurii-          Tikopian,
korii-          Anutan,
kuli-           Tavio, Yeval, Bonkovia, Pt. Vato.


sila "path, avenue, trail, road"  Sumerian

silang-         Philippines,
sala-           Peterara, Nevenevene, Tam, Nasawa, Narovorovo, Baetora,
		Mafea, Tutuba, Aore, Malo,
sal-            Lolsiwoi, Seke, Sa, Sowa,
sel-            Uri, Uripiv, Tautu, Maragus,
sili-           Port Vato,
seli-           Baiap, Sesivi.


sar "to write, inscribe"  Sumerian

sulatin-        Philippines, 
sorga-          "writing," Pagu,
sulat-          "writing," Philippines,
surat-          "to write," Ilokano.


pana "bow and arrow"  Sumerian

pana-           common Austric from Hawai'i to Madgascar,
fana-           Aniwa, Futuna, Makatea, Fila, Mele.


lah "to propel a boat"  Sumerian

la -            "sail"  common Polynesian
lai-            "sail"  Malagasy,
layar-          "to sail," Malay,
layag-          "sail," Philippines,
lumayag-        "to sail," Philippines,
lae-            "sail" Eton.


kur "mountain"  Sumerian

kor             Proto-Oceanic
goro-           Sinagoro,
golo-           Manggarai,
gor-            Proto-East Central Papuan.
tolo-           hills; Saa, Ulawa,
toro-           hills; Wango,
toro-puki-      mound, Maori,
koro-           heap, Viti,
tolo-           to rise, Florida,
kari-           mountain, Kewa,
gulod-          mountain, Tagalog,
gorot-          mountain, Igorot,
turod-          hill, Ilokano.


giba "night, early morning" Sumerian

gabi-           "night," Tagalog
gabi-i-         "night," Aklanon, Cebuano, Illongo,
tapo-           "night," Aniwa, Futuna.


dumu "child" Sumerian, also damu "child."

dama-           Kapingamarangi, Nukuoro,
kama-           Hawai'i,
tama-           Anutan, Fila, Mele, Maori,
tung-           Ranon, Fona,
tuna-           Gao,
tene-           Nengone.


dug "word, command, to speak"  Sumerian

tukua-          Aniwa, Futuna
takua-          Mele,
tokua-          Fila,
tugon-          "reply, answer" Tagalog,
tugma-          "rhymes" Tagalog,
tukoy-          "indirect reference, allusion, mention" Tagalog,
tudyo-          "a tease, parody" Tagalog,
tukuyin-        "to point out, specify" Tagalog,
taki-           "to lead, to give directions," Anutan.

dam "spouse"  Sumerian

kama-           "first husband" Hawai'i,
tememem-        "husband" Merlav,
tama-raxa-      "husband" Nasawa,
tamaine tungu-  "husband" Wailengi, Lolomatui,
temem ekie-     "husband" Hiw,
tamlus-         "husband" Hukua,
tamanatu-       "husband" Malo North,
teme natuk-     "husband" Vao.


dagal "to be, make wide"  Sumerian

dagul-          "to be, make large," Kapampangan
dakula-          "  "    "    "      Bikol,
dako-            "  "    "    "      Cebuano, Illongo,
dakila-         "great," Tagalog,
dakkel-         "big, great," Ilokano.


ga "milk" Sumerian


gatas-          Tagalog


buru "fruit"  Sumerian

pele-           Malay,
phle-           Khmer,
plei-           Bahnar,
vulu-           Paiwan,
bua, vua-       Melanesia,
fua-            Polynesia,
felan-          "blossom" Malagasy
para-           "to blossom, flower," Tuamotu,
fola-           "to spread out like vegetation," Tonga,
bula-k-         "flower," Indonesia, Malay, Philippines,
bluak-          "flower," Tai,
blook-          "flower," Thai.
pua-            "flower," Polynesia,
puru-           "bundle of fruit," Selepet.


bal "to return" Sumerian

balik-          "to return," Philippines,
perik-          "to turn" Shark Bay I,
poria-          "to turn" Penantsiro, Morouas,
-bilih-         "to turn" Vinmavis
baling-         "to turn" Philippines.



aya "father" Sumerian

ayah-                   Indonesia,
aay-                    Tai,
aja-                    Pagu,
aya, aiye, ayi-         Torricelli Phylum, Sakai
ajah-                   Proto-Austronesian.


ama "mother"  Sumerian

uma-            Mundari,
ama-            Malay, Fasu, Kewa, Beami,
ama -           "female guardian, female authority,"  Tagalog


bulog "circle"  Sumerian

bilog-          Kapampangan, Tagalog.


ga "fish"  Sumerian

ka-             common Austro-Asiatic,
i-ka-           common Austronesian,
da-             common Austronesian,
ke-             "whale" Lehali, Bek,
ki-             "whale" Wetamut.


nin "lady, queen, mistress"  Sumerian

nana-           "mother, " Lepaxsivir, Baiap, Tagalog, Arosi, Chamorro, Tikopian
naana-          "mother, "Woleaian
nanu-           "mother, "Kwale
nohna-          "mother, "Ponapean
nen -           "mother, "Nengone
nen -           "mother,  "Maxbaxo
ne -            "mother, "Burmbar
nun -           "mother, "Mae, Larevat
nine -          "mother, "Maat
nino -          "mother, "Toak
niinnae -       "mother, "Yap

nin "sister"  Sumerian

nene-           younger or youngest sister; common Philippines,
na-             younger sister, Kadai,
na-             mother's younger sister, Mak,
nana-           mother's sister, Fiji (Vuda Lautoka),
nane-           older sister, Awa,
nanoa-          older sister, Auyana,
nanoi-          older sister, Gadsup.


ku "to eat" Sumerian, also gu "to eat."

ga-             to eat, Savari, Gadaba,
kai-            to eat, Ang-ku, Mong-Lwe, Aniwa, Futuna, Fila,
kye-            to eat, A Mok,
cha-            to eat, Sakai,
chi-            to eat, Semang,
gin-            to eat, Thani,
kan-            to eat, Medebur, Wogeo, Arop,
kain-           to eat, Tagalog.


pil "to make dirty, defiled, obscure"  Sumerian

pala-hea-       dirty, defiled; Hawai'i,
balah-          dirt, foulness; Sunda,
bolo-           dirty, Merlav,
pipili-         dirty, Raga,
palo-           dirty, Aniwa, Futuna,
parau-          dirty, Pwele,
prau-           dirty, Lelepa,
peram-          dirty, Eton.


galu "man" Sumerian

kol-            Munda,
kur-            Malay,
tor-            Burumba,
tolomo-         Ninowa,
tali-           person, Shark Bay, Lorediakarkar,
taru-           person, Bonkovia.

lu "man" Sumerian

lai-            male, man; Sika,
lameng-         male, Sika,
lama-           man, Tumleo,
laman-          man, Jukua,
leman-          man, Nokuku,
laline-         man, Lorediadardar Shark Bay,
lanale-         man, Aore,
lamane-         man, Tangoa,
lananea-        man,Tambotalo,
laki?-          male, man; common Western Austronesian.


munus "woman" Sumerian

main-           Kaiep,
mnie-           Rhade, 
mane-maneka-    New Georgia,
momok-          Katbol,
mwomwok-        Timbembe,
no-moymoy-      Lingarak,
menandr-        Orap,
no-momox-       Vinmavis,
ni-momo-        Lebinwen, Benour,
n-matu-         Eratap, Eton,
n-matu-         Pango,
ma, mama-       mother, common Austric,
mune-        married woman, Balawaia.


tar "to cut," Sumerian,

tar-            Nume, Dorig, Koro, Lakona, Merig, Proto-Austronesian,
tare-           Wetamut,  Toga,
tere-           Wusi-Valui, 
-dali-          Sowa,
-tar-           Larevat,
-teri-          Vinmavis,
-tere-          Benour,
-tiri-          Malfaxal,
tori-           "to cut end off," Maori, Saa, Ulawa.



tud "to strike, beat" Sumerian

tut-            Hiw, Toga, Lehali, Mota, Mosina, Tam, Vetumboso,
tutu-           Lakona,
duki-           Sesake, 
tuki-           Anutan,
tu-             common Polynesian,
tuk-tok-        to knock at door, Tagalog,
tug-tug-        to play instrument, ring bell, strike gong; Tagalog.


tag "to touch"  Sumerian

tagki-          touch, Philippines,
tagkilan-       to touch, Philippines,
tangko-         light touch, Tagalog,
taapi-          to touch, Anutan.


sig  "to yoke, harness"  Sumerian

saklay          yoke, Philippines,
sakbat-         band across shoulders, to carry on shoulders; Tagalog,
sakbibi-        something carried on arms or hips, like baby; Tagalog,
sakay-          passenger, cargo, Philippines.


gal  "big, large, great"  Sumerian, also gula "great."

karu-           great, Austro-Asiatic,
kadui-          great, Malay,
tele-           great, Samoa,
garig-          big, Lakona,
koura-          big, Onjob,
tora-           big, Doromo,
toere- -        heavy, Doromo,
torona-         big, Lametin,
tare-           big, Nambel,
tariu-          big, Narango,
taura-          big, Filakera,
turu-           big, Burumba,
terop-          heavy, Mpotovoro,
turop-          heavy, Vovo.


kal, gal "to be, make precious"  Sumerian

galing          excellence, goodness; Philippines,
garea-          good, goodness; Lolsiwoi, Tam, Nevenevene,
karea-          goodness;  Wailengi, Lolomatui,
kare-           goodness, Ngwatua.


kala "mighty, strong"  Sumerian


kila-           strong, stout, able; Hawai'i,
tala-           strong, Austronesian.


gir "noble"  Sumerian

gilas-          gallantry, Tagalog,
giri-           strutting of cock, strutting about like cock, Philippines,
tira-tira-      to invest with authority, Tahiti,
ra'a-tira-      chief, Tahiti,
ranga-tira-     chief, Maori,
turuwa-         chief,  Awa,
turuama-        chief, Auyana.


ba "to give"  Sumerian, also ba "rations, wages."

ba-             to give, Paz,
wa-             to give, Ruk,
pa-             to give, Thao,
bigay-          to give, Philipines,
foake-          to give, Maori, Tuamotus, Rarotonga,
patuau-         to give, Sesake,
pitua-          to give, Nguna, Woraviu,
ptu-            to give, Pango,
bayad-          payment, damages; Philippines.


me "to be"  Sumerian, also -men "to be."

men- -          Isabi, Tauya,
min- -          Biyom,
maging-         Philippines,
ni-             Angaua, Paynamar.


kur, kar "to enclose, assemble, group," Sumerian


kur, kar-       to assemble, connect, enclose; common
		Austro-Asiatic.

		
uru "city" Sumerian

kur             city, common Austric,
koro-           village, Proto-Oceanic.


ud "storm,"  ur "storm," Sumerian

uta-            rain, Arosi, Lau,
ute pii-        heavy rain, Solomon Is.,
uka-            rain, Fiji,
h-udan-         rain, Indonesia
uru-            storm, Japanese.    
udan-        rain, Ifugao.

tur "small" Sumerian

kala-kela-      Mele,
ke-kela-        Fila,
kereng-gasi-    Burupika,
kile-           Kerepua, Wusi-Valui
kolo-           Raga,
kile-kile-      Matae, Nonona,
juring-         Mundari


tur "child" Sumerian

kari, kali, etc.-       child, common Melanesian.
terera-                 child, Ambrym,
dale-                   child, Florida,
karikik-                child, Sesake,
gari-                   Bugota,
kol-                    man, Munda,
kur-                    man, Malay,
tor-                    man, Burumba,
tolomo-                 man, Ninowa,
tali-                   person, Shark Bay, Lorediakarkar,
taru-                   person, Bonkovia.
kora-                   boy, lad; Santali,
kola-                   boy, Sora,
kora hapa-              boy; Kherwari, Santali,
kora hau-               boy; Mundari,
kuri-hapan-             girl, Kherwari, Santali, Savara,
kuri-hau-               girl, Mundari.


kalam "land"  Sumerian

kere-           land, earth; Fila, Mele, Aniwa, Futuna,
dare-           land, earth; Proto-Ambonese,
dareq-          earth, Proto-Austronesian.
kula-           �field, uncultivated land," Hawaii, 
kula-           �locality,� Samoa,
kulem-          basin, Sundanese.


sukud "to be, make high" Sumerian

sake, sakay-    up, upwards, upward indicator; common Polynesia and Melanesia.
saka-        to ascend, Cebuano, Samar-Leyte,
sa:kaq-         to ascend, Hiligaynon.


sagga "happy"  Sumerian

saya-           happy, Philippines,
sadya-          happy, Proto-Philippine,
sayasak-        happy, Ilocano,
suka-           happy, Malay,
sara-           happy, Lau,
hari-           happy, Maori.


an "sky, heaven"  Sumerian


ame, ama-       heaven, Japanese, 
anin-           air, Teor.,
angi-           air, Nias, "breeze," Mangar.,
ani-            breeze, Hawai'i,
anghin-         air, wind; Malagasy,
h-angin-        wind, breeze; Philippines.


asag  "demon that causes sickness"  Sumerian

asu-wang-       �demon, spirit, a man capable of changing form, Philippines
suang-          �demon, devil,� Tai, �genii," Siamese, 
saang-          �god, demon,� Thai, 
usong-          �spirit,� Telefol, 
sakit-          "sickness,"  Philippines.
sakit-       demon that causes illness; Tonsea Tombulo, Tondano.


sigga "weak" Sumerian

sigam-          consumptive, Tagalog,
sika-           suffering from dysentery, Ilocano,
sikal-          suffering from pains in abdomen, Ilocano,
sigab-          having a long illness, Bontok,
sakit-          illness, disease; Philippines.

  
geme  "temple prostitute"  Sumerian

gam=e-          widow, Pisa,
gamtu-          wife, Lakona,
ginang-         "lady, elder woman of dignity," Tagalog, 
geni-           "wife, woman" Proto-Malaitan,
geni-           "woman," Lau, Kwaio,
keni-           "wife, woman," Saa, Ulawa,
keni-           "female, woman," Are'are,
ke-keni-        "wife, woman," Mota,
a-gen-          "wife," Dumut, 
a-gan-          "wife," Awyu. 


kalum  "temple priest" Sumerian               

kulam-          sorcery, magic; Philippines, with prefix 
		sorcerer, magician, witchdoctor."
		

ri "yonder, distant"  Sumerian

raa, ra-        distant in time or space, common Polynesian and Melanesian,
idi-            "indicates time in past,"  Ilokano,
idiay-          "indicates distant place," Ilokano.   


igi "eye"  Sumerian


t-ingin-        eye, Tagalog
pan-ingin-      eye, Tagalog,
h-ingo-         eye, Kapau,
ma-k-ita-       eye, Parawen, Yorawata,
te, de-         eye, Papuan,
ta, da-         eye,  Austro-Tai,
ang-k           eye, Danaru,
ege-            eye, Usu,
agi-utu-        eye, Duduela,
engge-          eye, Usino,
ite-c           eye,- Meax,
oto-            eye, Samahi,
atsing          eye, Mt. Goliath,
ite-ja-         eye, Meninggo,
enggio-         eye, Dem,
eki-            eye, Suma.



ugu-  "over, above"  Sumerian


ake-            up, upward, to ascend; Anutan,
uka, uta-       towards mountains, inland; Polynesia,
akyat-          to rise, ascend; Tagalog,
angkat-         to lift, Indonesia; to be elevated, Ngaju-Dyak,
		ascent, Hova,
atas, atat-     above, Proto-Austronesian,
ake-            upward indicator, Polynesia,
ata-            up, Nakanai.


 
tumu  "to win over to"  Sumerian

tamuhin-        to acquire, realize; Philippines.



tumu "to be right for, destined for" Sumerian


tama-           correct, right, true; Philippines,
tamaan-         to hit the target, be right; Philippines.
tame-           correct, Labo,
tamari-         correct, good; Aniwa.


tuku "to tremble"  Sumerian

teki-           to tremble, Anutan,
takariri-       to shake, Anutan.


tuku  "to acquire, possess"  Sumerian

takaw-          greed, covetousnes; Philippines,
takam-          desire, Philippines,
takaw-          to steal, Ilokano.    



melam  "splendor"  Sumerian


malimali-       ostentation, showiness; Philippines.



lu  "to stretch"  Sumerian


lau-            to spread, expand; Hawai'i,
laha-           to spread, extend; Hawai'i,
lat-lat-        to stretch, Philippines,
luwas-          broad, extended; Sunda.



gul "to destroy"  Sumerian


guluhin-        to bring on disorder,to confuse; Philippines,
gulo-           riot, confusion; Philippiines,
gulungan-       to run over, Philippines.



gu "rope, thread"  Sumerian


gie-            rope; Hiw,
ga-             rope; Nume, Mosina, Vetumboso, Wetamut, Merlav,
gao-            rope; Baetora, Navenevene, Tam,
gau-            rope; Narovorovo,
guyuran-        draw rope, Philippines.



mah  "to be, make great"  Sumerian

ma- -           "intensive prefix," common Austric, 
maha-           "much, many, prefix" Maori, 
mah, mahu-      "much," Malagasy, Sunda.


duru "humid, irrigated"  Sumerian


kuala-          "canal, watercourse," Malagasy, 
kulu-           "to flow as water,"  Hawaii, 
turu-           "to drop as water," Fiji.
kolo-           "water," Roviana,
kolo-           "lake, rain water," Florida.


dirig "exceeding, excellent, additional"  Sumerian

dilag-          beauty, splendor; Philippines,
dilat-          wide open, to open eyes; Philippines


sa  "name" Sumerian

se- -           name, Sowa,
sei- -          name, Lorediakarkar,
so- -           name, Tambotalo,
se-n-           name, Butmas,
sa-ng-          name; Ranon, Fonah,
si-k-           name, Sa,
sa-ki-          name; Mate, Nul, Lamenu, Filakara.
sa-sa-          name: Proto-Austronesian.


dun "to dig" Sumerian

kanu-           to dig, Hawai'i,
tanu-           to dig, Samoa, Tonga, Maori, Tahiti, Anutan, Rarotonga,
tanam-          to bury, Java, Malaysia.


zalag "to be/make bright" Sumerian

sulu-           to shine, Proto-Oceanic,
sila-           to shine, Proto-Philippine,
sarang-         refulgent, Tagalog,
sulu-           light, Kapampangan,
zelag-          to shine, Proto-Philippine (Zorc and Charles),
sellag-         bright or full (of the moon), Ilokano,
sarang-         the human ear when light can be seen through it
		when viewed in a certain way, Ilokano.


gaba "breast" Sumerian


qaba-           breast of fowl; Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte,
ga:ba-          breast of fowl, Bikol.



bila "to turn"  Sumerian

vila-           to turn, Kiriwina,
vi-viri-        to turn, Anuki,
vira-           to turn, Proto-Milne Bay,
baling-         Philippines,
fariu-          Makatea,
-bilih-         Vinmavis,
-bil-           Bonga., Tonga., Makura,
-bilo-          Lameno,
firiu-          Fila, Mele,
poria-          Morouas, Penatsiro,
fuli-           Proto-Polynesian,
baliq-          Proto-Austronesian,
pulih-          Proto-Austronesian.    


abu "father" Sumerian

abu -           Mukawa
avu -           Ubir, Wedau
apu-t -         Kherwari, Santali
apu -           Mundari
aba, ba -       Kurku
apang, abbani - Gadaba
a-pan -         Salon
a-puk -         Khmer
aba -           Formosan Paz, Sai, Ata
apu, apo -      Philippines


tin "liquid" Sumerian

tano-           "water," Vunapu, 
tunu-           "left-over water," New Hebrides,
dan-            "water," Kis, Wogeo, Bam,
dano-           "water," Nonona,
danum-          "water," Proto-Austronesian.


tun "whole"  Sumerian

tanan-          "whole," Maranao,
tenig-          "whole animal," Bontok,
tanek-          "whole," Proto-Philippine.


gaba-gin "to oppose, confront,"  Sumerian, and kabus? "guardian, keeper."

gapiin-         to subdue, conquer; Philippines,
ga:pa-          to prohibit; Iloko,
gapa-           to forbid, Kankanai,
kapu, tapu-     to restrict, forbid, interdict; Hawai'i, Polynesia.


gana "field, farm"  Sumerian

gano-           earth, garden, plot; Lau,
qainaa-         garden; Saa, Ulawa.



as "one" Sumerian

esa-            Proto-Philippine, Proto-Ambonese, Proto-Austronesian,
isa-            Tagalog,
ose-            Penantsiro,
ese-            Matae, Akei, Fortsenal, Nonona, Malmariv, Navut, Lametin.



inim "words, speech" Sumerian

aman(ung)-      "words, speech, language"  Kapampangan.

ila  "to shine"  Sumerian

ilaw-          light, Tagalog,
ila-            fire, Gogodala,
ira-            fire, Awa, Fasu
ara-           fire, Kaygir,
ira-            fire, Kwale,
era-           fire, Kiwai,


illu  "high water, flood, fluid," Sumerian

ilog "river," Philippines


ara, ra "to shine, blaze, be bright," Sumerian

raa-           to shine,  Malaitan,
ra, raa-      sunlight, Melanesia,
rai-            to shine, Polynesia,
lae-           bright, clear, shining; Hawai'i,
lai-            shining of sea, Hawai'i,
raka-         to make fire, Solomon Is.
laki-          fire, Motu,
lake-         fire, Vaturana,
a-raka-      fire, Suki,
liko-          to glisten, shine, Hawai'i,
riko-          to shine brightly, Tuamotu
riko-          dazzling; Maori, Tuamotu.
ria, rian-     to shine, Tai,
riko-           to shine, Tuamotu,


izi  "fire,"  Sumerian


asie-           fire, Arosi,
usu-            fire, Asenara, Moni,
asuwain-        fire, Ulau-Suain,
ahi-            fire, Maori, Teor., Goram,
ahu-            burnt, scalded; Tahiti,
ahe-            fire, Banjak Is.,
ahu-            heat, fever; Tahiti,
ahu-            fire, Buru,
ahang-          fire; Laul, Lironesa,
ahango-         fire, Faulili,
afi-            fire, Fila, Mele, Futuna,
isa-            fire, Maranomu, Maria, Maiagolo,
izi-            fire, Binandere,
asu-            smoke, Samoa
aso-            smoke, Tagalog,
usa-            fire, Warkay.


bul, bil "to sprout," Sumerian

bira            �to sprout, grow,� Lau, 
piro            �to shoot, sprout,� Are�are, 
bila            �to sprout,� Kwaio, 
bila�o          �to grow, Kwaio,
pariri          �to shoot up, grow,� Maori,
pula-pula       "to sprout, shoot,� Hawaii, 
bora            �to grow, sprout,� Efate, 
vara            �to grow,� Motu, 
biri            �to grow,� Oba, 
vora            �to grow stout,� Fiji,
mula            "to plant," Ilokano.


sur "to flow, to rain, drip," Sumerian


sari-         to flow,  Aore, Mafea,
saro-         to flow, Peterara,
sara-         to flow, Woraviu, Sesake, Nguna, Pwele, Siviri, Lelepa, Fila,
ser-          to flow, Eratap, Eton,
soro-soro-    to flow, Ngwatua,
sileng-       water, Apma,
serik-        rain, Shark Bay I
serk-         rain, Lorediakarkar,
seri-         rain, Shark Bay II,
surong-       upstream, Ilokano.  



suku "to flare up, to shine," Sumerian

sug-aq-                 light; Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte,
sig-ak-                 conflagaration, Tagalog,
soata-                  bright, Proto-Polynesian.


dara, dar "dark, dim," Sumerian

kor-kor-            black,  Vatrata, Vetumboso
kur-kur-            black,  Sasar, Mosina,
golu-               black, Alite,
qole-qole-          black, Murray Is.,
korema-korema-      black, Motu,
kur-kuram-          dark, black; Nissan,
kele-               black, Proto-Polynesian,
kuro-            black, Japanese.

ugnim "crowd, army, workgang," Sumerian

hunga-          �company of people, group,� Maori, 
hui-            �to join, connect, mix, assemble, assembly, union,� Hawaii,  
aukahi-         �united,  flowing together,� Hawaii,    
ugnay-          �union, connection,� Tagalog,
ugnayan-        �to unite, join, connect, increase, make long,� Tagalog, 
aug-wiya-       �to join,� Auyana.  

bil  "to burn, roast," Sumerian

wela-           "to burn," Hawai`i,
bara-           "fire," Malay,
poroma-         "to burn," Waropen,
parom-          "to roast," Biak,
por-            "fire,"  Dusner,
for-            "fire," Ron,
pare-           "to cook," Busami,
wero-           "to flame up," Are'are,
balu-           "red-hot," Lau,
bulu-           "torch," Lau,
beriai-         "to burn," Papua-Niugini,
balae-          "to burn," Sopese Polopa.

mu  "to grow, produce, reproduce, sprout"  Sumerian

mu-             to give birth, produce, spawn," Japanese, 
mula-           to plant; Ilocano, Bontok, Isneg, Sambal, Ibaneg,
mula-           source, origin; Philippines,
mula-           "from, since, then" Philippines,
mole-           taproot of tree, bottom, foundation, cause; Hawai'i,
mu-             trunk of; Fiji, Mosimo, Yoidik, Rempi.


dundun  "to prepare warp for weaving,"  Sumerian

d.and.an-       "to weave,"  Indonesia,
tenun-          "to weave,"  Proto-Austronesian,
tata-           "to weave,"  Arosi,
tenutun-        "to weave,"  Proto-Austronesian.
tia-            "to weave,"  Proto-Polynesian.
kangkang-       "to stretch," Proto-Austronesian.


tab "to burn,"  Sumerian


tafu            make fire; Samoa, Tonga
tavu-tavu-      to burn down, Fiji
tavu-cawa-      steam bath, Fiji
dapug-          hearth, oven, Indonesia
dapu-           hearth, Proto-Oceanic
dapog-          fireside, Tagalog
tap, tapak-     Sun, Papuan
kapu-           fire, Fate, Sesake
kapi-           fire, Api
tapa-           to burn, Manggarai
tapu-           to put wood on a fire so it will burst into flame, Anutan.



banda "child,"  Sumerian


bainta -        "child," Tairora
bata -          "child," Tagalog, Cebuano, Kapampangan, Manobo
baka -          "child," Vaturana
bitiir -        "child," Yap
boot -          "son," Thai
poti�i -        "infant," Samoa
pota -          "infant," Anutan
pootiki -       "infant," Maori
potii -         "girl," Tahiti
potiti -        small, Marquesas
budak, bunting- (child) Proto-Austronesian
bala -          people, Malay, Tidore, Sobojo, Kadai
banta -         man, person, people Gadsup              


    
sun "shine, star"  Sumerian

sine-           "torch, shine," Samoa,
sina-           "to shine," Proto-Oceanic, Proto-Philippine, Proto-Malaitan,
sinag-          "sun," Fiji,
sinag-          "rays of light," Tagalog,
   
    
    
    In some cases, examples from the non-Austronesian languages of Papua
New Guinea are used.  There are two groups in that region, Austronesian
and non-Austronesian, and they both have influenced each other.

                                               

Selected References

JUMSAI, Sumet, Naga: cultural origins in Siam and the West Pacific, Singapore, 1988.
MANANSALA, Paul Kekai, "The Austric Origin of the Brahmana and Rishi Traditions," International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, vol.xxiv, no.2, jun.95.
_,"The Austric Origin of the Sumerian Language," Language Form, vol. 22, no.1-2, Jan.-Dec. 1996.
__,The Naga Race, Calcutta, 1994.
__,"Austric in India," International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, vol. XXVIII, no.1.
THOMSEN, Marie-Louise, The Sumerian language: introduction to its history and grammatical structure, Copenhagen, 1984.
YOSHIWARA, R., Sumerian and Japanese, Japan, 1991.

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Austric Influences in India

An examination of Austrics in India, particularly their influence on the language.

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